Vibrato is a traditional technique on the tuba produced one of two ways—moving the jaw up and down (embouchure) or a controlled flexing of the diaphragm (lungs)—resulting in a pulsation of the sounding dynamic. With the tuba, unlike other instruments such as strings or the human voice, vibrato is primarily a function of volume, so wideness of pitch oscillation is not a controllable parameter. NB: In contemporary music, players will usually assume non vibrato unless otherwise directed.
Maximum speed. Approximately six to seven pulses per second.